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Citation guide

One of the pillars of academic writing is correctly citing literature. We would like to provide some information about the subject.
The citation system you must use depends on the publication in which you wish to publish. There is a variety of citation styles to choose from.

Enquire with your faculty which citation style you should use. The literature management software Citavi offers more than 11.000 citation styles. They can be found in the ?citation? - ?citation style? menu. Select the citation system (for example, in-text citation or footnote) first, followed by the style. The form changes depending on the style.

Citations are used to support, solidify, and demonstrate one's own assertions or working hypotheses. They must be labelled with references to avoid plagiarising.

A contribution in an edited book, printed (example)
Degele, Nina (2005): Neue Kompetenzen im Internet. In: Kai Lehmann und Michael Schetsche (Hg.): Die Google-Gesellschaft. Wissen im 21. Jahrhundert. Bielefeld: transcript, S. 63-74.

When citing electronic documents, you must include additional information in your reference. To ensure clear identification and retrievability, add a URL or a persistent identifier, as well as the date of access.

The examples below follow the DIN ISO 690:2013-10 Information and documentation - Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources.
Appendix A, Citation System, outlines two commonly used citation methods.
Appendix C, Examples for References, lists the following examples:

  • C. 3 Contributions in monographic online publications
    • MYERS, Michael P., Jay YANG, and Per STAMPE. Visualization and functional analysis of a maxi-K channel. EJB: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology [online]. Valparaiso (GFP): Universidad de Valparaiso, 15. Dezember 1999, Band 2, Nr. 3 [Zugriff am: 28. Juni 2006]. ISSN 0717-3458. Verfügbar unter:
  • C. 9 Contributions in continuous online publications - without pagination
    • Stringer, John A. et al. Reduction of RF-incluced sample heating. Journal of Magnetic Resonance [online]. Elsevier. März 2005, Band 173(1), 40-48 [Zugriff am: 18.Juli 2006] Verfügbar unter:
  • C. 10.2 Contributions or parts of a website
    • Internetforum. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 7.Juli 2006, 11:32 [Zugriff am: 10.Juli 2006, 12:28]. Verfügbar unter :

Additional or expanded descriptions are required for citing and referencing electronic resources such as electronic monographs, databases, computer programs, electronic continuous compilations, electronic discussion lists, blogs and electronic news:

  • Media type [online], online database, computer program, podcast, digital image
  • System requirements such as computer type, operating system, file size, software requirements
  • Version number
  • Date of access [accessed: 3. September 2006 or accessed: 2006-09-03]
  • Availability and access

Labelling electronic resources via persistent identifier-system

The traditional URL just specifies the location of the document. Because this location may change, online documents receive unambiguous persistent identifier-systems and are referenced as follows:

  • Handle-system - see also the repository Eldorado of the TU Dortmund, examples:
    • Steinhauer, Eric: Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch' ich Gewalt. Kann und soll man open access rechtlich erzwingen? 9. InetBib-Tagung vom 06. Bis 08. September 2006 in Münster. URL: Abrufdatum: 02.02.2015
    • Weiser, Stefan: Multiband-Gutzwiller-Methode für NickeloxidDortmund, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2005.: URL: http// Abrufdatum 02.02.2015.
  • DOI - Digital Object Identifier, example:
    • Erickson, John S.: A digital object approach to interoperable right management. D-Lib Magazine, June 2001. Online in Internet: URL: Abrufdatum 10.01.2011.
  • URN - Uniform Resource Name, example:
    • Marxkors, Reinhard: Zur Formgebung künstlicher Kauflächen. In: Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift, 29 (1974) 9, S. 850-853. Und Online im Internet: URL: Abrufdatum 15.12.2010